Television is often called “king” of the advertising media, since a majority of people spends more hours watching TV per day than any other medium. It combines the use of sight, color, sound and motion…and it works.  TV has proven its persuasive power in influencing human behavior time and time again. But it’s also the “king” of advertising costs.


Advantages in Television Advertising

Television reaches very large audiences-audiences that are usually larger than the audience your city’s newspaper reaches. The area that a television station’s broadcast signal covers is called A.D.I., which stands for “Area of Dominant Influence.”


Some advantages of television advertising include the following:


1. Advertising on television can give a product or service instant validity and prominence.


2. You can easily reach the audiences you have targeted by advertising on TV. Children can be reached during cartoon programming, farmers during the morning agricultural reports and housewives during the afternoon soap operas. A special documentary on energy sources for heating homes and business will also attract viewers interested in heating alternatives.


3. TV offers the greatest possibility for creative advertising. With a camera, you can take your audience anywhere and show them almost anything.


4. Since there are fewer television stations than radio stations in a given area, each TV audience is divided into much larger segments, which enables you to reach a larger, yet, more diverse audience.


Disadvantages in Television Advertising

Because TV has such a larger A.D.I., the stations can charge more for commercials based on the larger number of viewers reached.


The cost of television commercial time is based on two variables:


1. The number of viewers who watch the program.

2. The time during the day the program airs.


One 30 second television commercial during prime time viewing (8 p.m. to 11 p.m.) can cost 10 to 30 times more than one radio spot during drive time (which is considered prime listening time).


While the newspaper may cover the city’s general metropolitan area, TV may cover a good portion of the state where you live. If such a coverage blankets most of your sales territory, TV advertising may be the best advertising alternative for your business.


Producing a commercial is also an important variable to consider. On the whole, television audiences have become more sophisticated and have come to expect quality commercials. A poorly produced commercial could severely limit the effectiveness of your message, and may even create a bad image in your customer’s mind.


Advertising agencies or TV commercial production facilities are the best organizations for creating a commercial that will be effective for the goods or service you are offering. But the cost of a well-produced commercial is often more expensive than people think. Some TV stations will claim they can put together commercials for “almost nothing.” Before agreeing to this, find out what “almost nothing” means. Then, determine if the commercial quality and content they are proposing will represent your firm’s image.


Many companies use the station’s commercial production facilities for creating “tag lines” on pre-produced commercials. Often, the station will help you personalize the spot for little or no cost…if you advertise with them. Remember, more than anything else, when it comes to making a TV commercial, you get what you pay for. And when you’re buying commercial time, it makes sense to have the best sales presentation possible.


Remember, like radio, the message comes and goes…and that’s it. The viewer doesn’t see your commercial again unless you buy more placements.


Creativity: A Vital Element

When you advertise on TV, your commercial is not only competing with other commercials, it’s also competing with the other elements in the viewer’s environment as well.


The viewer may choose to get a snack during the commercial break, go to the bathroom or have a conversation about what they just saw on the show they were viewing. Even if your commercial is being aired, viewers may never see it unless it is creative enough to capture their attention. That’s why it’s so important to consider the kind of commercial you are going to create…and how you want your audience to be affected. Spending money on a good commercial in the beginning will pay dividends in the end.


Don’t Use TV Unless Your Budget Allows

Attempting to use TV advertising by using a poorly-produced commercial; buying inexpensive late night commercial time that few people watch; or just placing your commercial a couple times on the air will guarantee disappointing results. To obtain positive results from TV advertising you must have enough money in your budget to:


1. Pay for the cost of producing a good TV commercial.

2. Pay for effective commercial time that will reach your viewer at least 5-7 times.


Properly done, television advertising is the most effective medium there is. But it is big league advertising…and you shouldn’t attempt it unless you have enough money in your budget to do it right.


If you’re still attracted to TV, it’s a good idea to call in an advertising agency for production and media buying estimates. Then, figure out what sales results you can expect. With such data, you should be able to reach a logical advertising decision.



Since its inception, radio and radio advertising has become an integral part of our culture. In some way, it touches the lives of almost everyone, every day. Radio, as a medium, offers a form of entertainment that attracts listeners while they are working, traveling, relaxing or doing almost anything.  A farmer, for example, may listen to the radio while he is having breakfast or plowing his field.  People driving to work often listen to the radio.  Radio offers information such as: news, weather reports, traffic conditions, advertising and music for your listening pleasure.


What Are Some of the Good Things About Radio?


Radio is a relatively inexpensive way of reaching people.  It has often been called the “theater of the mind” because voices or sounds can be used to create moods or images that if crested by visual effects would be impossible to afford.


You can also negotiate rates for your commercials, or even barter. Stations are often looking for prizes they can give away to listeners, so it’s possible to get full commercial credit for the product or service you offer.


Advantages to radio advertising include:


The ability to easily change and update scripts are paramount to radio broadcasting, since news stories can and often do happen live.


Radio is a personal advertising medium. Station personalities have a good rapport with their listeners. If a radio personality announces your commercial, it’s almost an implied endorsement.


Radio is also a way to support your printed advertising. You can say in your commercial, “See our ad in the Sunday Times,” which makes your message twice as effective.


What are Some Limitations to Radio Advertising?


Radio advertising is not without its disadvantages too, such as:


You can’t review a radio commercial. Once it plays, its gone. If you didn’t catch all the message, you can’t go back and hear it again.


Since there are a lot of radio stations, the total listening audience for any one station is just a piece of a much larger whole. That’s why it’s important to know what stations your customers and prospects probably listen to. Therefore, most of the time, you’ll have to buy time on several radio stations to reach the market you are after.


People don’t listen to the radio all the time…only during certain times of day. So, it’s important to know when your customers or prospects are listening. For example, if you want to reach a large portion of your audience by advertising during the morning farm report, you’ll have to specify that time period to the radio station when you buy the time.


One of the most popular times to reach people is during Drive Times (from 6 a.m. to 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. to 7 p.m.)  It’s called that because most people are going to or from work during this period, and because most people listen to their radio when they drive.  Unfortunately, radio stations know that this is a favorite time to advertise, so commercial costs are much higher during this time.


Radio as a broadcasting medium, can effectively sell an image…or one or two ideas at the most.  It is not, however, a detailed medium…and is a poor place for prices and telephone numbers.


Radio listeners increase in the spring and summer, contrary to television audiences that increase in the fall and winter and decrease in the summer. This is an important aspect to consider when you are choosing advertising media.



Many of the same “print” type principles, which apply to newspaper advertising also, apply to magazine advertising. The biggest differences are:

 Advertising messages are more image-oriented and less price-oriented.

The quality of the pictures and paper are superior to newsprint.

Advertisements involve color more often.

 The general rule that you can run the same ad 3-5 times within a campaign period before its appeal lessens applies to magazine advertising as well, even with a monthly publication. So it makes sense to spend extra time and money to prepare a worthwhile ad that can be successfully repeated. Over long terms such as these, however, be aware that the client (you) often tire of the ad before the audience does.

 Because ads in magazines are not immediate, they take more planning. Often, an ad for a monthly magazine must be prepared at least a month in advance of publication, so ads detailing prices and items have to be carefully crafted to insure accuracy.

 Since the quality of the magazines is superior, the advertising that you generate must be superior as well. Consider getting assistance from a graphic artist or an advertising agency.

 There are two categories of magazines: trade magazines and consumer magazines. Trade magazines are publications that go to certain types of businesses, services and industries. Consumer magazines are generally the kind you find on the average newsstand. Investigate which type would do your business the most good.

 An agency can also purchase the magazine space for you, often at no charge, because the magazine pays the agency a commission directly. If you wish to purchase the advertising yourself, contact the magazine directly and ask for an “Ad Kit” or “Media Package.” They will send you a folder that includes demographic information, reach information, a current rate card and a sample of the publication.

 Although most magazines are national in nature, many have regional advertising sections that allow your business to look like it purchased a national ad when it only went to a certain geographical area. 


This can be especially useful if your product or service is regional in nature as well and could not benefit from the magazines complete readership.  Each magazine does this differently, so contact the one(s) you are interested in and ask them about their geographic editions.  Some sophisticated magazines even have demographic editions available, which might also be advantageous.

Newspapers may still be a strong advertising vehicle


Every advertising medium has characteristics that give it natural advantages and limitations. As you look through your newspaper(s), you’ll notice some businesses that advertise regularly. Observe who they are and how they advertise their products and services. More than likely, their advertising investment is working if it’s selling!


Some Advantages in Newspaper Advertising

Many homes still receive a newspaper, either by newsstand or home delivery. Reading the newspaper is a habit for most families. And, there is something for everybody: sports, comics, crosswords, news, classifieds, etc. You can reach certain types of people by placing your ad in different sections of the paper. People expect advertising in the newspaper. In fact, many people buy the paper just to read the ads from the supermarket, movies or department stores. Certain days of the week (you know the “insert” days for large retailers) are still strong for newspapers. Depending on your product, newspapers may still be a strong advertising vehicle.


Unlike advertising on TV and radio, advertising in the newspaper can be examined at your leisure. A newspaper ad can contain details, such as prices and telephone numbers or coupons.


There are many advantages to advertising in the newspaper. From the advertiser’s point-of-view, newspaper advertising can be convenient because production changes can be made quickly, if necessary, and you can often insert a new advertisement on short notice. Another advantage is the large variety of ad sizes newspaper advertising offers. Even though you may not have a lot of money in your budget, you can still place a series of small ads, without making a sacrifice.


Some Disadvantages with Newspaper Advertising

Advertising in the newspaper offers many advantages, but it is not without its inherent disadvantages, such as:


1. Newspapers usually are read once and stay in the house for just a day.

2. The print quality of newspapers isn’t always the best, especially for photographs. So use simple artwork and line drawings for best results.

3. The page size of a newspaper is fairly large and small ads can look minuscule.

4. Your ad has to compete with other ads for the reader’s attention.

5. You’re not assured that every person who gets the newspaper will read your ad. They may not read the section you advertised in, or they may simply have skipped the page because there wasn’t any interesting news on it.

6. Circulation is dropping for most papers.


Here are some other things to remember:


1. Newspaper circulation has dropped in almost every city. Sunday is the day a newspaper is read most thoroughly.


2. Position is important, so specify in what section you want your ad to appear. Sometimes there’s a surcharge for exact position…but don’t be afraid to pay for it if you need it.


3. Request an outside position for ads that have coupons. That makes them easier to cut out.



Website Marketing

Website Marketing


 Management of a website and the accompanying marketing can be a confusing and complex task. Search Engine Optimization (SEO), Search Engine Marketing (SEM),  and Pay Per Click (PPC) are all terms that you see referencing the management of website marketing.  Keywords, links, and page optimization are all important nonpaid aspects of making your website an effective sales tool for your business.

The above are technical aspects. Even more important is the brand development of the site and the presentation of your products and/or services key benefits. If search engines are the queens of the internet, then customer service is the emperor. Getting the technical aspects correct is only important if your site convinces the visitor that you can fulfill their specific needs.

Even if you have no interest in the physical management of your website, you need to understand how this key marketing tool functions. Websites are not “build it and leave” tools, You must consistently evaluate and modify a website for it to provide the performance you need. Businesses are allocating more and more of their  marketing budget to the Internet. To meet the competition you need to manage your site and the various marketing technologies and tools.

The internet is now at the “top of the food chain” for marketing tools. It can provide a 24/7 fulfillment tool, a brand building tool, and perhaps most importantly a feedback loop from current and potential customers. The most important step you can make in developing a website is to define which of its functions you will need to utilize. It doesn’t matter if you build your own site or you work with a website designer, understanding how the web fits into your marketing plan is the most significant part of developing a web presence.

The internet for firms consists of two major parts: your website and your hosting service. When you define your needs in regard to what content your site will have, then you can make an informed choice as to which “hosting” service is best for you. Selecting a host is the most technical decision (beside the actual “building a website”) decision you will have to make. Take some time to read the details on a few of the major hosting sites like network solutions and you will start to understand what is offered. If you choose to use an outside website developer let them help you make the choice.

Remember that when you build a website you are in fact opening another location or perhaps your only location. It is a strategic decision which will be around as long as you are in business. Think carefully about content and structure – knowing that you will modify and perhaps totally change the website several times during the life of your business. A website is an investment in the capital assets of your company, treat it as you would your most important tool or resource.